### Physics I (PHY 1101)

**Course Code: **PHY 1101

**Credit: **3.00

**Credit Hour: **3.00

**Prerequisite: **n/a

**Physical Optics:** Theories of light: Interference of light, Young’s double slit experiment, Displacements of fringes & its uses. Fressnel Bi-prism, Interference at wedge shaped films, Newton’s rings, Interferometers; Diffraction of light: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction. Diffraction by single slit. Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit & N-slits-diffraction grating; Polarization: Production & analysis of polarized light, Brewster’s law, Malus law, Polarization by double refraction. Retardation plates. Nicol prism. Optical activity. Polarimeters, Polaroid.

**Waves & Oscillations:** Differential equation of a Simple Harmonic Oscillator, Total energy & average energy, Combination of simple harmonic oscillation, Lissajous figures, Spring-mass system, Calculation of time period of torsional pendulum, Damped oscillation, Determination of damping co-efficient. Forced oscillation. Resonance, Two-body oscillation. Reduced mass Differential equation of a progressive wave, Power & intensity of wave motion, Stationary wave, Group velocity & Phase velocity. Architectural acoustics, Reverberation and Sabine’s formula.

**Modern Physics:** Michelson-Morley’s experiment. Galilean transformation, Special theory of relativity & its consequences; Quantum theory of Radiation: Photo-electric effect, Compton effect, wave particle duality. Interpretation of Bohr’s postulates, Radioactive disintegration, Properties of nucleus, Nuclear reactions, Fission. Fusion, Chain reaction, Nuclear reactor.

### Physics II (PHY 1103)

**Course Code: **PHY 1103

**Credit: **3.00

**Credit Hour: **3.00

**Prerequisite: **PHY 1101

**Heat & thermodynamics:** Principle of temperature measurements: Platinum resistance thermometer, Thermo-electric thermometer, Pyrometer; Kinetic theory of gases: Maxwell’s distribution of molecular speeds, Mean free path, Equipartition of energy, Brownian motion, van der Waal’s equation of state, Review of the First law of thermodynamics and its application, Reversible & irreversible processes, Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot; Efficiency of heat engines, Carnot theorem, Entropy and Disorder, Thermodynamic Functions, Maxwell relations, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, Third law of thermodynamics.

**Properties of Matter:** States of matter; Elastic properties of solids: Coefficients of elasticity, Energy calculation; Flow of liquids: Equation of continuity, Laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number & its significance, Bernoullis theorem and its application; Viscosity: poiseulles equation, Motion in a viscous medium, Determination of coefficient of viscosity; Surface tension: Surface tension as a molecular phenomenon, Surface tension and surface energy, Capillarity and angle of contact, Quincke’s method.

### Physics Laboratory (PHY 1104)

**Course Code: **PHY 104

**Credit: **1.00

**Credit Hour: **1.00

**Prerequisite: **PHY 1101

Experiments based on PHY 1103

### Physics (PHY 2105)

**Course Code: **PHY 2105

**Credit: **3.00

**Credit Hour: **3.00

**Prerequisite: **Basic Physics

**Waves and Oscillations** Periodic motion: periodic waves, elastic restoring force, simple harmonic motion (SHM), differential equation of SHM and its solutions, examples of SHM, energy calculation of SHM, time period, velocity, acceleration, frequency calculation with graph, Lissajou’s figure design, spring mass system and torsional pendulum, DHM, characteristic graph, differential equations for spring mass system with damping mechanism and RLC circuit- series and parallel analysis, resonant frequency, reactance, impedance, FHM; Mechanical Waves; Vibrating bodies and acoustic phenomena: progressive wave and its differential equation, EM wave, group velocity, phase velocity, standing waves, node and antinode; The Doppler effects, application of acoustic Phenomena.

**Electricity magnetism** Electrostatic Force and Electric Field; Concept of charge, Coulomb’s law, concept of electric field and its calculation, electric dipole; Gauss’s law in electrostatic and its application, electric field due to dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform e-field, electric flux, flux density, Gauss’s law and Coulomb’s law; Electric Potential: electric potential and its calculation, electric potential energy, relationship between field and potential, potential due to a point charge, dipole, continuous charge distribution, electric field calculation from electric potential, equipotential surface, potential gradient; Capacitance and Dielectric : capacitors, capacitors in series and parallel, energy of charged capacitors, electrical energy density in terms of electric field, electron volt, dielectric media, polarization vector and displacement vector, Laplace’s and Poission’s equations, capacitor with a dielectric material, Gauss’s law with dielectric; Current, Resistance and Electromotive Force: current and current density, resistance and resistivity, Ohm’s law, EMF, power, resistance in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s Rules, RC circuit; Magnetic Field: magnetic field, magnetic flux and flux density, Lorentz force, Gauss’s law for magnetism, motion of a charged particles in magnetic field : Hall effect; Magnetic field intensity, magnetic dipole moment, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s law and its applications; Magnetic properties of material, magnetization, hysteresis; Inductions and Inductance: induced emf and Faraday’s law of induction; Lenz’s law; Mutual inductance ; Self inductance; Energy in an inductor; Inductance in series, in parallel, and their combination, MMF, leakage and fringing flux, Transformers.

**Quantum Physics** Quantum theory: quantum theory of radiation, energy of photons, photo-electric Effect, work function, threshold frequency, threshold voltage, Compton effect, X-rays production, properties and applica- tion, Bragg Diffraction, De Broglie wave length, Heisenberg’ s Uncertainty Principle, correspondence principle, pair production, pair annihilation; Schrodinger equation: wave function, Schrodinger equation-time dependent and time independent form, expectation value, quantum operator, tunneling effect, quantum numbers, energy of trapped electron, quantum dots and corrals, quantization of Bohr orbital energy.

### Physics Laboratory(PHY 2106)

**Course Code: **PHY 2106

**Credit: **1.00

**Credit Hour: **1.00

**Prerequisite: **N/A

Experiments based on PHY 2105